Banking Of Roads
The phenomenon of raising outer edge of the curved road above the inner edge is to provide necessary centripetal force to the vehicles to take a safer turn and the curved road is called Banking of Roads. It is general phenomenon taking place every where. The curvature of the road must be inclined so as to control the Centrifugal force of the Vehicle. The angle at which these roads are inclined is called banking angle. When a vehicle goes round a curved road, it requires some centripetal force. While rounding the curve, the wheels of the vehicle have a tendency to leave the curved path and regain the straight line path. Force of friction between wheels and the roads opposes this tendency of the wheels. This force of friction therefore, acts towards the centre of circular track and provides the necessary centripetal force. When vehicle go through turnings, they travel along a nearly circular arc. There must be some force to produce the required centripetal acceleration. Centripetal force is provided to the vehicle by following three ways.
By friction only
By banking of roads only
By friction and banking of roads both.
The coefficient of friction between tyres and road. The value of μ decreases when road is wet or extra smooth or tyres of the vehicle are worn out. Thus force of friction is not a reliable source for providing the required centripetal force to the vehicle. Especially in hilly areas where the vehicle has to move constantly along the curved track, the maximum speed at which it can run will be very low. If any attempt is made to run it at a greater speed, the vehicle is likely to skid and go out of track. In order that the vehicle can go round the curved track at a reasonable speed without skidding, the sufficient centripetal force is managed for it by raising the outer edge of the track a little above the inner edge. It is called banking of the circular track or Banking of Roads. Roads are generally banked for the average speed of vehicles passing over them. However, if the speed of a vehicle is somewhat less or more than this, the self adjusting state friction will operate between tyre and road and vehicle will not skid.
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