Criminology is the term used to refer the scientific study about the Crimes and Criminal behavior like nature, types of Crimes, Social and Cultural reactions to crime, etc., Criminology has been considered as a research study of behavioral sciences, which is studied by Sociologists, Anthropologists and Psychologists. The main objective of Criminology is developing general and verified principles and other types of information regarding the crime, Social, media and cultural reactions and the process under law. A Crime consists of three main divisions such as the sociology of law, the scientific approach of crimes – the Criminal Etiology and the Penology - a study of crime control.
Social Philosophers gave various thoughts about criminology and the concepts of law. Several Schools of Thoughts on crime had been developed with different approaches. The Classical School philosophers emphasized that Effective punishments can prevent people from doing criminal activities and the severity of the given punishment should be balanced to the crime. This method ignored the irrationality and unconsciously committed crimes. The Positivist School has the assumptions that the criminal behavior of an individual depends on the internal and external factors. The Sociological Positivism approach considers the societal factors such as low level education, poverty, etc. as reasons for a crime. The Chicago School adopted the social ecology and hypothesized that the Social disorganization reduces the chances of control of crimes.
In the analysis of the Theories defined on crime there are several viewpoints such as psychological approaches, functionalism, Marxism, Systems theory, etc. Social Structural Theories explained the factors like Social Disorganization, Social ecology, Social class, Sub cultural theories and so on. Individual Theories clarified the concepts like Trait theory, Control Theory, Interactionism, Rational Choice and Routine activity theory etc.
The values or basic rules and beliefs of Society are formed as laws and the laws can be classified into Natural Laws and Statutes. Natural Law protects the people from harmful crimes against law. Statutes are created by legislatures, which are based on the society’s values, norms and virtues. Though several theories of crimes are given, the crimes can be classified as corporate crime, political crime, state crime, blue / white collar crime, etc. From the analysis of Criminology we can study that the characterizations of crimes and criminology may vary from place to place with respect to other factors like cultural standards. The views of different schools have a common opinion that a crime is an act which infringes the basic rules, beliefs and values of the society.
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