Abiotic Transformation Of Hazardous Chemicals
When the chemicals are released in to environment by emission or accidently, a single hazardous chemical has to be converted to a mixture of chemicals before it reaches the objective organism. The transformation of one chemical to another under normal environmental conditions is rare occurrence. Most of the times, incomplete conversion of one compound and parent compound from mixture of chemicals are possible. Formation of mixture of components is frequently occurring process. For instance, irradiation of aqueous solution of herbicide named 2, 4, 5 - T is being converted to new five products like poly chlorinated biphenyl, toxaphene insecticidal agent, industrial waste and hexachlorocyclohexane. These new compounds may undergo some alterations by environmental mechanism.
The transport of hazardous chemicals may alter the composition of hazardous mixture. The physical process of hazardous chemicals is by partial fractionation of vital components. The volatilization of soil or water, desorption, adsorption, migration of chemicals inside the soil, surface run off and transport of soil in to groundwater. For instance, the fractionation of mixture that enters the soil shall result in conversion of insecticide like aldrin. The parent compound is aldrin, entering of aldrin results in epoxide aldrin, photodieldrin (photo conversation production) and dihydrochloreden dicarboxylic acid (cleavage product of benzene ring).
The compounds are found in leachate and it is hydrophilic in nature because of two carboxylic groups. The hazardous chemicals enter the groundwater zone in an unconfined space of aquifer. The leachate composition of chemical mixture imitates persistence of both the environment and mobility. Most of the chemical reaction in earth’s atmosphere is abiotic transformation. However the chemical transformation in soil and water can be abiotic or biotic in nature.
Abiotic transformation of hazardous chemicals may occur in air, water and soil include the following actions.