The timer or lumber is the wood of trees cut and it is used for building materials. With the use felling axe, the timbers would have been hewn square and then surface finished with a broad axe. Smaller timbers were ripsawn from the hewn baulks using the pitsaws or frame saws, if required. Timbers can be machine planned on all four sides and today it is more common for timbers to be bandsawn.
Vertical Timber Includes
The vertical timber includes Columns or pillar, wall studs.
It is the vertical structural element that transmits the weight of the structure above to other structural elements below through compression. It is designed to resist lateral forces. Columns are used to support the beams in which the upper parts of the ceilings rest.
It is the vertical member in the light frame construction techniques and called as balloon framing and platform framing of the building’s wall. It is also called as “stick and platform”, “stick and frame”, or “stick and box” construction, the sticks carry the vertical loads.
The Horizontal Timber Include
Sill beams is also called as ground sills or sole pieces, at the bottom of the wall into which posts and studs are fitted using tenons. Noggin pieces, it is the horizontal timbers forming the tops and bottoms of the frames of the infill panels. Wall plates are at the top of timber framed walls that support the trusses and joists of the roof.
The Sloping Timber
The sloping timber includes trusses, braces, and herringbone bracing.
In architecture and structural engineering, a truss is the structure which includes one or more triangular units constructed with straight members whose ends are connected at joints referred to as nodes. In nodes alone, the external forces and reactions to those forces are considered to act and result in forces in the members, either tensile or compressive forces. All the joints in truss are treated as revolutes, so the torque is explicitly excluded. The planner truss is the only truss, where all the members and nodes lie within two dimensional planes, whereas in space truss, all the members and nodes are extending in to three dimensions.
It is the slanting beams, which provide extra support between horizontal or vertical members of the timber frame.
It is the decorative and supportive style of frame, which is normally 45 degree to the upright and horizontal direction of the frame.