Principles of Surveying
The first and main objective of surveying is to arrange plans for estates or building roads, railways, pipelines or canals and to measure the area of field or a station. To determine the exact positions on earth on widely distant points we use geodetic surveying. Surveys are used for a lot of purposes. It is very useful in making topographical map showing hills, valley, rivers, villages, town etc of a country. Cadastral map, engineering map, military map and contour maps are prepared with the help of surveying. It is very useful to prepare plans for dams, reservoirs etc... The basic law deployed in surveying is to work out the position of a point from some other points and to spot from known features to unknown features.All survey work follows four principles or procedures. They are Planning, Collecting Measurements, Processing Measurements and Drawing Up.
The time available for surveyors to spend on site and underwater is very short. To collect maximum data in this short time, it is essential that the work should be planned well before. Planning earlier makes the work on site efficient, safe and problem free. The techniques used for surveying can be determined by the level of details and accuracy required. The equipment available and the experience of the team also determine the technique to be used.
Team work and communication is very important in the whole process of surveying. If the team is provided with better and accurate information before and after the work, then the leader of the team can easily deal with any problems. All people employed in the work of surveying are asked to record all the measurements. The forms are the primary records of your work and should be kept even after they have been processed. Keeping records of day to day accounts, speculations and ideas about the site is very useful. To be efficient the team needs to be well trained and well practiced. If any team member needs a refresher then the survey techniques can be practiced on dry land.
In the processing stage the measurements that have been collected are used to calculate the positions of the points or details trying to record. Often this process is done while drawing up the site plan if the points are to be plotted by hand. For some methods distance measurements are corrected for differences in depth.
The site plan can be created with measurements collected from your site. The plan may be drawn by hand or drawn on a computer. As printed copies can be easily made computer generated plans are more useful. They can be printed at different scales and the level of detail shown can vary as the work progresses.
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