Civil engineering is an engineering discipline that deals with the design, construction and maintenance of physical and naturally built environment. Civil engineering includes the construction of bridges, roads, canals, dams and buildings. After military engineering, civil engineering is the next oldest engineering discipline. It has several sub divisions like environmental engineering, geotechnical engineering, structural engineering, transportation engineering, municipal or urban engineering, water resource engineering, materials engineering, coastal engineering, surveying and construction engineering. Civil engineering takes place public sector and private sector. It can be considered as an application of physical and scientific principles. Civil engineering is greatly related to knowledge of structures, material science, geography, geology, soils, hydrology, environment, mechanics and other fields. Surveying is the most important sub discipline of civil engineering. The branch of civil engineering dealing with municipal infrastructure is known as municipal engineering.
The first and main objective of surveying is to arrange plans for estates or building roads, railways, pipelines or canals and to measure the area of field or a station. To determine the exact positions on earth on widely distant points we use geodetic surveying. Surveys are used for a lot of purposes. It is very useful in making topographical map showing hills, valley, rivers, villages, town etc of a country. Cadastral map, engineering map, military map and contour maps are prepared with the help of surveying. It is very useful to prepare plans for dams, reservoirs etc... The basic law deployed in surveying is to work out the position of a point from some other points and to spot from known features to unknown features. All survey work follows four principles or procedures. They are Planning, Collecting Measurements, Processing Measurements and Drawing Up.
A person who performs civil engineering is known as a civil engineer. They usually practice in a particular area of expertise like construction engineering, geotechnical engineering, structural engineering, land development, transportation engineering, hydraulic engineering or environmental engineering. Civil engineers have no special career path. An experienced civil engineer can do more complex analysis or design work or management of more complex design projects. He will be specialized in management of other engineers or into specialized consulting including forensic engineering. Civil engineers work with surveyors and specialized civil engineers. Civil engineering is also referred as site engineering. Site engineering primarily focuses on converting a tract of land for various usages. Civil engineers possess academic degree with civil engineering as major subject.