IUPAC Nomenclature Organic Chemistry:
The IUPAC nomenclature of organic chemistry is a systematic method of naming organic chemical compounds as recommended by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC). Ideally, every organic compound should have a name from which an unambiguous structural formula can be drawn. There is also an IUPAC nomenclature of inorganic chemistry. See also phanes nomenclature of highly complex cyclic molecules.
The main idea of IUPAC nomenclature is that every compound has one and only one name, and every name corresponds to only one structure of molecules (i.e. a one-one relationship), thereby reducing ambiguity.
For ordinary communication, to spare a tedious description, the official IUPAC naming recommendations are not always followed in practice except when it is necessary to give a concise definition to a compound, or when the IUPAC name is simpler (viz. ethanol against ethyl alcohol). Otherwise the common or trivial name may be used, often derived from the source of the compound.
Straight-chain alkanes take the suffix "-ane" and are prefixed depending on the number of carbon atoms in the chain, following standard rules. The first few are:
For example, the simplest alkane is CH4 methane, and the nine-carbon alkane CH3(CH2)7CH3 is named nonane. The names of the first four alkanes were derived from methanol, ether, propionic acid and butyric acid, respectively. The rest are named with a Greek numeric prefix, with the exceptions of nonane which has a Latin prefix, and undecane and tridecane which have mixed-language prefixes.
Alkenes and Alkynes
Alkenes are named for their parent alkane chain with the suffix "-ene" and an infixed number indicating the position of the double-bonded carbon in the chain: CH2=CHCH2CH3 is but-1-ene. Multiple double bonds take the form -diene, -triene, etc., with the size prefix of the chain taking an extra "a": CH2=CHCH=CH2 is buta-1,3-diene. Simple cis and trans isomers are indicated with a prefixed cis- or trans-: cis-but-2-ene, trans-but-2-ene. More complex geometric isomerisations are described using the Cahn Ingold Prelog priority rules.
Alcohols (R-OH) take the suffix "-ol" with an infix numerical bonding position: CH3CH2CH2OH is propan-1-ol. The suffixes -diol, -triol, -tetraol, etc., are used for multiple -OH groups: Ethylene glycol CH2OHCH2OH is ethane-1,2-diol.
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|Qualitative Analysis||Confidence Interval for Mean & Proportions||Nomenclature of Inorganic Compounds|
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|Lewis Structure-VSEPR Theory-Shapes of Molecular Models||Chemical Kinetics||Concentration of Solution: Molarity, Molality and Normality|
|Clausius-Clapeyron Equation||Nomenclature of Organic Compounds||Fundamentals of Organic Chemistry|
|Balancing the Chemical Equation by Ion-Electron Method or Redox Method||Classification of Chemical Reactions||Chemistry of Transition Elements|
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|Fundamentals of Inorganic Chemistry||Chemistry of Representative Elements||Isomerism in Organic and Inorganic Compounds|
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|IUPAC nomenclature||Chemical bonding||Isomerism|
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