Chromosomal Theory of Inheritance
Chromosomal theory of inheritance is also referred to as Boveri- Sutton chromosome theory. This forms basic fundamental theory of genetics. It helps in identifying chromosomes and it function as genetic material carrier. Chromosome theory of inheritance helps in better understanding of mechanism behind Mendelian inheritance to identify chromosomes according to Mendel laws. In addition, this theory also confirmed that chromosomes are arranged in linear structure with genes or alleles at specific sites. Position of genes can be identified by the occurrence frequency of it s offspring.
Chromosome theory of inheritance explains that chromosomes which are found in dividing cells have the potential capability of passing from one generation to the next generation. This forms the basis of all genetic inheritance mechanism.
History of theory invention
Theodor Boveri and Walter Sutton discovered chromosome theory of inheritance in the year 1902. Both carried out their inventions independently. Theodor Boveri studied in Sea urchins and found that chromosomes are responsible for development of embryo. Walter Sutton studied in grass hoppers and he found that chromosomes are prevalent in maternal chromosomes and paternal chromosomes which get passed on to their offspring during meiosis phase.
Walther Flemming, founder of cytogenetics studied cell division cycle and chromosome distribution to offspring through mitotic phase in salamander eggs in the year 1879. German evolutionary biologist, August Weismann studied Multicellular organism inheritance by germ cells. Gametes of eggs and sperm cells are inherited rather than body cells or somatic cell is proved by germ plasm theory. Weismann found that Mendelian inheritance is not through meiosis phase. This idea of August Weismann was used by Theodor Boveri and Walter Sutton to confirm their discovery.
Initial concept of chromosome are inherited to next generation is not accepted all of a sudden. It existed as a myth. Later in the year 1913, an independent assortment of chromosomes proposed by Eleanor Carthers in grass hoppers the concept of chromosomal theory of inheritance was widely acknowledged. Independent assortment takes place during meiosis of eukaryotic organism. Chromosomes results in new gametes which are randomly sorted from most combination of paternal and maternal chromosomes. Chromosomal theory of inheritance is challenged till 1915 where Thomas Hunt Morgan studied genetic linkage in fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. His invention supported the idea of chromosomal theory of inheritance.
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