Microenvironment and Niche:
Micro organisms require a physical environment for its effective interaction among themselves and with other biogeochemical cycles of atmosphere. The biogeochemical cycles of water, plant, animal or soil influence the utilization of physical environment for interaction of microbial organisms.
One such special environment which provides physical location for the organisms to interact with each other is referred as microenvironment. The flux movement of nutrients, growth factors, oxidants and reductants to the physical location that is micro environment is limited in all possible ways. The excretion or waste products that comes from microorganism will not be able diffuse away from the source. When the waste generation by microorganisms is more then microenvironment helps in reducing the inhibitor for its growth. For this purpose, the gradients and fluxes develop their own niches which are so unique in nature. Niche comprises microorganism which can create its specific physical habitat of growth. It also helps in proper utilizing of time to use the resources, especially the resources that are available for the growth of the microorganisms and its specific functions. Each and every organism has the ability to create its own and specific microenvironment and niches.
This specially structured physical environment that is microenvironment inhibits or reduces the action of predation in parasites. Pore diameters size of microenvironment is found to be optimum at 3 to 6 µm. This dimension gives protection for the bacteria when releasing its excreted products or nutrients or waste products in the pores of predators. When the pore size is more than 6 µm then the pores allow the protozoa to feed on the bacteria. The organisms those are present inside the cell of the other organism has different microenvironment and niche than the organism that are present on the body surface or edges of other organism. Microorganisms form a clay hutch by interacting with clay particles to protect them.
Instance of Microenvironment and Niche
Closely spaced particles for maximum utilization of microorganism they create their own physical environment as described henceforth. Generally oxygen from an aerobic region forms a niche with sulfide from an anaerobic region. This niches acts as a physical environment.
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